To determine the incidence of Candida bloodstream infections (BSI) and antifungal drug resistance, population-based active laboratory surveillance was conducted from October 1998 through September 2000 in two areas of the United States (Baltimore, Md., and the state of Connecticut; combined population, 4.7 million). A total of 1,143 cases were detected, for an average adjusted annual incidence of 10 per 100,000 population or 1.5 per 10,000 hospital days. In 28% of patients, Candida BSI developed prior to or on the day of admission; only 36% of patients were in an intensive care unit at the time of diagnosis. No fewer than 78% of patients had a central catheter in place at the time of diagnosis, and 50% had undergone surgery within the previous 3 months. Candida albicans comprised 45% of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata (24%), C. parapsilosis (13%), and C. tropicalis (12%). Only 1.2% of C. albicans isolates were resistant to fluconazole (MIC, >64 mug/ml), compared to 7% of C. glabrata isolates and 6% of C. tropicalis isolates. Only 0.9% of C. albicans isolates were resistant to itraconazole (MIC, >1 mug/ml), compared to 19. 5% of C. glabrata isolates and 6% of C. tropicalis isolates. Only 4.3% of C. albicans isolates were resistant to flucytosine (MIC, >32 mug/ml), compared to 0.38 mug/ml for 10% of Candida isolates, >1 mug/ml for 1.7% of isolates, and >2 mug/ml for 0.4% of isolates. Our findings highlight changes in the epidemiology of Candida BSI in the 1990s and provide a basis upon which to conduct further studies of selected high-risk subpopulations.
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