Because communities with multiple brownfields tend to be disproportionately affected economically, the need for an indicator framework that can be implemented with little to no funding sources or with no consultant facilitation is critical. The Action Model framework shown in Table 4 summarizes the city-provided data, along with community issues and the city's redevelopment approaches. Since the development of new homes and removal of blighted properties, home ownership in neighborhoods surrounding the Brass site increased, and crime rates dropped almost 50%. While it takes time, perhaps years, to see the effects of such efforts, the Action Model, through its focus on improving overall health status and creating partnerships, may provide ideas for change for communities adversely affected by brownfields. Since its use in the Milwaukee and Baraboo projects, the ATSDR Brownfields/Land Revitalization Action Model has been used by communities in Detroit, Michigan; Minneapolis, Minnesota; East Cleveland, Ohio; Portland, Oregon; Blue Island, Illinois; Janesville, Ohio; and Rochester, Albany, and Utica, New York; among others.
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