The aim of this study was to examine differences in wayfinding strategies between good and poor sense-of-direction (PSD) female undergraduate participants, using a think-aloud method, which allowed the monitoring of their mental activities in the course of navigation. Each participant in the two groups was guided through the route by the experimenter in the first trial, and was then asked to find her way by herself in the second. The analysis of performance and protocol data obtained in the two trials revealed the following: (1) good sense-of-direction (GSD) participants showed much better performance on route learning than PSD participants; (2) wayfinding strategies of GSD participants were different from those of poor ones, though there were a variety of strategies found within each group; (3) GSD participants made more flexible use of effective strategies than poor ones. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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