Infectious diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Epidemiologically, differences in the patterns of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance exist across diverse geographical regions. In this review on infectious diseases in the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt, the epidemiology of tuberculosis, malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections will be addressed. The challenges of the hepatitis C epidemic in Egypt and the epidemiology of this infection across the region will be reviewed. In recent years, we have seen dengue endemicity become established, with major outbreaks in parts of the region. Emerging data also indicate that, across the region, there is an increasing burden of antibiotic resistance, with endemicity in healthcare settings and dissemination into the community. New challenges include the emergence of the Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever virus in Saudi Arabia. The annual Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia serves as a model for the control of infectious disease in mass gatherings. As most of these countries constantly experience a uniquely dynamic population influx in the form of expatriate workers, tourists, or pilgrims, concerted regional and international collaboration to address these public health concerns in a region that lies at the crossroads for the global spread of infectious pathogens is imperative.
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