The modulation of behavioral responses evoked by local and distant nociceptive stimuli following a discrete somatic injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was examined in rats. Inflammation of one craniofacial muscle evoked mechanical allodynia not only in the region of inflammation but also secondary mechanical allodynia in the contralateral head, ipsilateral hindpaw, and contralateral hindpaw. In contrast to this, CFA-induced inflammation of either the hindpaw or gastrocnemius muscle evoked mechanical allodynia restricted to the hindlimb region. The widespread modulation of nocifensive behavior evoked by inflammation of deep craniofacial tissue found in this study resembles the widespread deep tissue pain reported in fibromyalgia, whiplash injury and some temporomandibular disorders and thus may provide insight into the mechanisms of these musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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