The influence of clinicopathological features on the predictive accuracy of conventional breast imaging in determining the extent of screen-detected highgrade pure ductal carcinoma in situ

  • Hayward L
  • Oeppen R
  • Grima A
 et al. 
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INTRODUCTION: The extent of calcified ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) detected by screening mammography is a determinant for treatment with breast conserving surgery (BCS). However, DCIS may be uncalcified and almost a quarter of patients with DCIS treated initially by BCS either require a second operation or are found to have unexpected invasive disease following surgery. Identification of these cases might guide selective implementation of additional diagnostic procedures.

METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with a preoperative diagnosis of pure high-grade DCIS at the Southampton and Salisbury Breast Screening Unit over a ten-year period was carried out. Mammograms were reviewed independently by a consultant radiologist and additional factors including the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS(®)) breast density score, DCIS extent and disease location within the breast recorded.

RESULTS: Unexpected invasive disease was found in 35 of 144 patients (24%). Within our unit the re-excision rate for all screen-detected DCIS is currently 23% but for patients included in this study with high-grade DCIS the re-excision rate was 39% (34/87). The extent of DCIS (p=0.008) and lack of expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) predicted the requirement for re-excision in both univariate (p=0.004) and multivariate analysis (p=0.005).

CONCLUSIONS: High-grade DCIS may be focally uncalcified, leading to underestimation of disease extent, which might be related to ER status. Invasive foci associated with high-grade DCIS are often mammographically occult. Exploration of additional biomarkers and targeted use of further diagnostic techniques may improve the preoperative staging of DCIS.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Breast
  • Carcinoma in situ
  • Estrogen receptor
  • Screening

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  • L. Hayward

  • R. S. Oeppen

  • A. V. Grima

  • G. T. Royle

  • C. M. Rubin

  • R. I. Cutress

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