Melanoma is the most severe of all skin cancers as it may grow rapidly and metastasize. The application of photodynamic therapy (PDT) opens new perspectives in treatment of this cancer. Numerous studies suggest that the exposure of tumor cells to PDT can lead to cell death via two separate processes: apoptosis or necrosis. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro photodynamic therapy which induces apoptosis in the human Beidegrom Melanoma (BM) cell line, using neutral comet assay. The cells were incubated with Photofrin II (15 microg/ml and 30 microg/ml) 4 h before and 3 h after irradiation for 5 or 10 min with the light intensity of 10 mW/cm2, using a lamp with red filter (632.8 nm). The percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly higher after PDT comparing to control cells. We observed 25% and 70% of apoptotic cells after shorter irradiation and treatment with 15 microg/ml and 30 microg/ml of Ph II, respectively. After longer irradiation, the respective values were 71.9% and 90%. The results suggest that induction of apoptosis is an important determinant of photodynamic sensitivity in the studied cell line and that some types of DNA damage are dependent on photosensitizer concentration and time of irradiation.
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