The relations between the sputtering parameters and the crystalline microstructure of ZnO thin films are presented. The energetic bombardment of substrate by neutral atoms, ions and electrons during sputtering is characterized by total energy flux density which affects the film. This parameter can be estimated by RF power, substrate bias voltage and concentration of reactive gases. Substrate temperature and total energy flux density are the major parameters which have a significant influence on ZnO thin film crystalline structure. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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