Influence of sucking habits and breathing pattern on palatal constriction in unilateral posterior crossbite-a controlled study

  • Primožič J
  • Franchi L
  • Perinetti G
 et al. 
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of prolonged sucking habits and mouth breathing on palatal vault morphology in a group of subjects with unilateral functional crossbite [crossbite (CB) group] compared with a group of subjects with normal occlusion [non-crossbite (NCB) group]. A sample of 80 Caucasian subjects (51 CB and 29 NCB; aged 5.3 ± 0.8 years) in the deciduous dentition was selected. A questionnaire regarding the subject's sucking habits was answered by the parents. Any sucking habit that lasted more than 24 months was considered as a prolonged sucking habit. The breathing pattern was assessed by an experienced otorinolarygologist and was classified either mainly nose or mouth breathing. Intercanine and intermolar distances and palatal surface area and volume were recorded three dimensionally on study casts. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed. Posterior CB was negatively correlated with all the dental and palatal parameters (P < 0.01) with the exception of the palatal surface area that did not reach the statistical significance. Only prolonged sucking habits (but not mouth breathing) was a significant risk indicator for unilateral functional CB (P < 0.001). However, the prolonged sucking habits were not significantly correlated with any of the investigated parameter, and mouth breathing was negatively correlated with the intermolar distance only. Therefore, maxillary constriction in unilateral functional CB might not be influenced by the presence or absence of prolonged sucking habits or mouth breathing.

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