BACKGROUND: The delivery of antipseudomonal antibiotics by inhalation to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected subjects with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis is a logical extension of treatment strategies successfully developed in CF bronchiectasis. Dual release ciprofloxacin for inhalation (DRCFI) contains liposomal ciprofloxacin, formulated to optimise airway antibiotic delivery. METHODS: Phase II, 24-week Australian/New Zealand multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 42 adult bronchiectasis subjects with >/=2 pulmonary exacerbations in the prior 12 months and ciprofloxacin-sensitive P aeruginosa at screening. Subjects received DRCFI or placebo in three treatment cycles of 28 days on/28 days off. The primary outcome was change in sputum P aeruginosa bacterial density to the end of treatment cycle 1 (day 28), analysed by modified intention to treat (mITT). Key secondary outcomes included safety and time to first pulmonary exacerbation-after reaching the pulmonary exacerbation endpoint subjects discontinued study drug although remained in the study. RESULTS: DRCFI resulted in a mean (SD) 4.2 (3.7) log10 CFU/g reduction in P aeruginosa bacterial density at day 28 (vs -0.08 (3.8) with placebo, p=0.002). DRCFI treatment delayed time to first pulmonary exacerbation (median 134 vs 58 days, p=0.057 mITT, p=0.046 per protocol). DRCFI was well tolerated with a similar incidence of systemic adverse events to the placebo group, but fewer pulmonary adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily inhaled DRCFI demonstrated potent antipseudomonal microbiological efficacy in adults with non-CF bronchiectasis and ciprofloxacin-sensitive P aeruginosa. In this modest-sized phase II study, DRCFI was also well tolerated and delayed time to first pulmonary exacerbation in the per protocol population.
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