Institutions are defined as systems composed of regulative, normative and cultural‚Äêcognitive elements that act to produce meaning, stability and order. Institutional elements move from place to place and time to time with the help of carriers. Four types of carriers are distinguished‚Äîsymbolic systems, relational systems, routines, and artifacts‚Äîand two of these‚Äîsymbolic and relation systems‚Äîare described and illustrated. It is argued that carriers are not neutral vehicles but have important effects on the elements transmitted.
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