Optimal and accurate management of any patient depends on a detailed history and thorough physical examination. The information garnered dictates the definitive management of the patient. Adequate examination of the head and neck, particularly the upper aerodigestive tract, presents a unique challenge because much of the area to be examined is not easily accessible to direct visualization. However, advances in medical technology have prompted the evolution of the instrumentation and the techniques used to examine this anatomic region. This evolution allows for a more informative assessment of the patient and a more comfortable experience. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
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