Nanofibers and nanomaterials are potentially recent additions to materials in relation to tissue engineering (TE). TE is the regeneration of biological tissues through the use of cells, with the aid of supporting structures and biomolecules. Mimicking architecture of extracellular matrix is one of the challenges for TE. Biodegradable biopolymer nanofibers with controlled surface and internal molecular structures can be electrospun into mats with specific fiber arrangement and structural integrity for drug delivery and TE applications. The polymeric materials are widely accepted because of their ease of processability and amenability to provide a large variety of cost-effective materials, which help to enhance the comfort and quality of life in modern biomedical and industrial society. Today, nanotechnology and nanoscience approaches to scaffold design and functionalization are beginning to expand the market for drug delivery and TE is forming the basis for highly profitable niche within the industry. This review describes recent advances for fabrication of nanofiber scaffolds and interaction of cells in TE. � 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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