Intercollegiate Athletic Participation and Freshman-Year Cognitive Outcomes

  • Pascarella E
  • Bohr L
  • Nora A
 et al. 
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Controlling for precollege aptitude and other influences, male intercollegiate football and basketball players demonstrated net freshman-year declines in reading and mathematics while nonathletes and athletes in other sports showed modest net gains. Female athletes made smaller net gains in reading than nonathletes, but the effect depended upon precollege ability.

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  • Ernest T. Pascarella

  • Louise Bohr

  • Amaury Nora

  • Patrick T. Terenzini

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