A brief review of the Internet history reveals the fact that the Internet evolved after the formation of primar-ily independent networks. Similarly, interconnected Clouds, also called Inter-Cloud, can be viewed as a nat-ural evolution of Cloud computing. Recent studies show the benefits in utilizing multiple Clouds and present attempts for the realization of Inter-Cloud or federated Cloud environment. However, Cloud vendors have not taken into account Cloud interoperability issues and each Cloud comes with its own solution and inter-faces for services. This survey initially discusses all the relevant aspects motivating Cloud interoperability. Furthermore, it categorizes and identifies possible Cloud interoperability scenarios and architectures. The spectrum of challenges and obstacles that the Inter-Cloud realization is faced with are covered, a taxonomy of them is provided and fitting enablers that tackle each challenge are identified. All these aspects require a comprehensive review of the state of the art, including ongoing projects and studies in the area. We conclude by discussing on future directions and trends towards the holistic approach in this regard.
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