This article raises questions about and provides meta-paradigmatic perspectives on an integral understanding of leadership. In view of the various shortcomings of conventional leadership discourse, an integral orientation considers that leadership research demands a comprehensive framework and multi-level approach suited for investigating the complex, interrelated processes involved. Correspondingly, the outlined integral framework of leadership covers the interdependent subjective, intersubjective and objective dimensions of leaders and leadership. Furthermore, developmental levels and lines — classified in a dynamic cycle — open up a processual understanding of leadership. Finally, theoretical and methodological implications are discussed and some avenues for future research and perspectives of integral leadership presented.
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