Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and is correlated with insulin resistance. Insulin stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production through the IRS-1/PI3-kinase/Akt/eNOS pathway (where IRS-1 is insulin receptor substrate 1, PI3-kinase is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and eNOS is endothelial NO synthase). We asked if IL-6 affects insulin vasodilator action both in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in the aortas of C57BL/6J mice and whether this inhibitory effect was caused by increased Ser phosphorylation of IRS-1. We observed that IL-6 increased IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser312 and Ser616; these effects were paralleled by increased Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and reversed by JNK and ERK1/2 inhibition. In addition, IL-6 treatment resulted in impaired IRS-1 phosphorylation at Tyr612, a site essential for engaging PI3-kinase. Furthermore, IL-6 treatment reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of eNOS at the stimulatory Ser1177 site and impaired insulin-stimulated eNOS dephosphorylation at the inhibitory Thr495 site. Insulin-stimulated eNOS activation and NO production were also inhibited by IL-6; these effects were reversed by inhibition of JNK and ERK1/2. Treatment of C57BL/6J mice with IL-6 resulted in impaired insulin-dependent activation of the Akt/eNOS pathway in the aorta as a result of JNK and ERK1/2 activation. Our data suggest that IL-6 impairs the vasodilator effects of insulin that are mediated by the IRS-1/PI3-kinase/Akt/eNOS pathway through activation of JNK and ERK1/2.
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