Internal and Surface Damage of Concrete During Freezing and Thawing Loads

  • Penttala V
  • Räsänen V
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The internal and surface damages during freezing and thawing tests of 45 different concretes were assessed by slab test and CIF-test procedures. Tests were performed with deionized water as the freezing liquid in which no additional salts were dissolved. The test concretes were produced so that a large range of compressive strengths, air contents, curing measures, and binder amounts were covered. In the slab and CIF-tests surface deterioration was measured by weighing the deterioration of the surface layer after 56 freezing and thawing cycles in which temperature varied between +20 and –20 oC. The internal damage in the test slabs was studied by measuring the change in ultrasonic pulse velocity of the test slabs. The most significant variables affecting the freezing and thawing durability of concrete were calculated statistically and contours of estimated response surface were produced. Water-cement ratio and air content of the concretes were the most dominant variables affecting the internal and surface damage caused by the freezing and thawing loads. Water curing improved the R-squared values of the test population in the surface damage tests. In the internal damage tests the curing measures did not improve the statistical relevancy of the estimated response surfaces.

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  • V E Penttala

  • V.J. Räsänen

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