Interventions for primary prevention of suicide in university and other post-secondary educational settings

  • Harrod C
  • Goss C
  • Stallones L
 et al. 
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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death among post-secondary students worldwide. Suicidal thoughts and planning are common among post-secondary students. Previous reviews have examined the effectiveness of interventions for symptomatic individuals; however, many students at high risk of suicide are undiagnosed and untreated. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect on suicide and suicide-related outcomes of primary suicide prevention interventions that targeted students within the post-secondary setting. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following sources up to June 2011: Specialised Registers of two Cochrane Groups, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and nine other databases, trial registers, conference proceedings, and websites of national and international organizations. We screened reference lists and contacted authors of included studies to identify additional studies. We updated the search in November 2013; we will include these results in the review's next update. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that tested an intervention for the primary prevention of suicide using a randomized controlled trial (RCT), controlled before-and-after (CBA), controlled interrupted time series (CITS), or interrupted time series (ITS) study design. Interventions targeted students within the post-secondary setting (i.e. college, university, academy, vocational, or any other post-secondary educational institution) without known mental illness, previous suicide attempt or self-harm, or suicidal ideation. Outcomes included suicides, suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, changes in suicide-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and availability of means of suicide. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standardized electronic forms for data extraction, risk of bias and quality of evidence determination, and analysis. We estimated standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We analysed studies by intervention type and study design. We summarized RCT effect sizes using random-effects models meta-analyses; and analysed statistical heterogeneity using the Chi(2) test and I(2) statistic. We described narratively the results from studies that used other study designs. MAIN RESULTS: Eight studies met inclusion criteria. They were heterogeneous in terms of participants, study designs, and interventions. Five of eight studies had high risk of bias. In 3 RCTs (312 participants), classroom-based didactic and experiential programs increased short-term knowledge of suicide (SMD = 1.51, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.45; moderate quality evidence) and knowledge of suicide prevention (SMD = 0.72, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.07; moderate quality evidence). The effect on suicide prevention self-efficacy in one RCT (152 participants) was uncertain (SMD = 0.20, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.54; low quality evidence). One CBA analysed the effects of an institutional policy that restricted student access to laboratory cyanide and mandated professional assessment for suicidal students. The incidence of student suicide decreased significantly at one university with the policy relative to 11 control universities, 2.00 vs. 8.68 per 100,000 (Z = 5.90; P Language: en

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