See, stats, and : https : / / www . researchgate. net / publication / 261097638 Intestinal Article Impact : 1 . 38 : 10 . 1046 / j . 1365 - 2109 . 1999 . 00302 . x CITATIONS 205 READS 1 , 299 2 : Einar University 175 , 583 SEE Thomas University 114 , 833 SEE All - text , letting . Available : Einar Retrieved : 29 Aquaculture Research , 1999 , 30 , 73—93 Abstract It is well known that microorganisms cannot be avoided in commercial aquaculture . The skin , gills and gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by microorganisms which are especially adapted to a life in intimate contact with these body surfaces . Microflora associated with the gastrointestinal tract of the early life stages of fish larvae and fry have been described in several investigations , but the establishment of a balanced gut flora in fish larvae is complex , and seems to be influenced by the microflora of the egg , the live feed and the bacteria present in the tank water . Generally , the gut of newly hatched larvae contains very few bacteria , but it is rapidly colonized during the first few days in a two - step pattern . The existence of an intestinal microflora in larvae has led to the assumption that some microorganisms are normal (autochthonous) , while others are re garded as abnormal and may lead to disease . The disease conditions known in larviculture are closely related to the particular ecological strate gies of the pathogens . as well as to the species and development stage of the fish . The introduc lion of beneficial , or probiotic bacteria into the larval gut could be done using rotifers as carriers or by inoculation of the rearing water with live bacteria . The seeding of the gut with harmless bacteria which occupy the attachment sites may prevent infection by pathogenic bacteria .
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