The patterning of cardiac myocytes on a micron scale ( approximately 5 microm) was achieved by microcontact printing of fibronectin onto a hydrophobically pretreated glass substrate. The patterned cardiac myocytes conjugated with each other by forming a gap junction, as judged from the synchronized Ca(2+) transition over the pattern, and thus simultaneously contracted. The dynamic change of the Ca(2+) concentration within the patterned tissue was analyzed quantitatively during successive contraction and relaxation using a Nipkow-type high-speed confocal microscope.
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