The incidence of cervical cancer has decreased more than 50% in the past 30 years because of widespread screening with cervical cytology. In 1975, the rate was 14.8 per 100,000 women in the United States; by 2006, it had been reduced to 6.5 per 100,000 women. Mortality from the disease has undergone a similar decrease (1). The American Cancer Society estimates 11,270 new cases of cer- vical cancer in the United States in 2009, with 4,070 deaths from the disease (2). Recent estimates worldwide, however, are of almost 500,000 new cases and 240,000 deaths from the disease per year (3). When cervical cytology screening programs have been introduced into communities, marked reductions in cervical cancer incidence have followed (46). New technology for performing cervical cancer screening is evolving rapidly, as are recommendations for classifying and interpreting the results. The pur- pose of this document is to provide a review of the best available evidence on screening for cervical cancer. Specific equipment and techniques for perform- ing cervical cytology and interpretation of the results are not discussed.
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