A 5-year-old, castrated male mixed-breed dog was presented for paraparesis, ataxia, hyperesthesia, and thrombocytopenia of 5 months' duration and recurrent seizures during the preceding 2 weeks. Multifocal neurological, ophthalmological, pulmonary, and cardiac diseases were identified. Magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis supported a tentative diagnosis of neoplastic or inflammatory disease. A computed tomography-guided biopsy provided both cytopathological and histopathological evidence of intravascular lymphoma. The disease progressed despite chemotherapy with prednisone, L-asparginase, and vincristine. Postmortem histopathological examinations suggested intravascular lymphoma in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in multiple other organ systems. This is the first description of an antemortem diagnosis and treatment of intravascular lymphoma involving the central nervous system of a dog.
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