The intricate association between gut microbiota and development of Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 diabetes

  • P. B
  • I. J
  • F.J. V
 et al. 
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Abstract

It has been proposed that changes in the composition of gut microbiota contribute to the development of diabetes Types 1, 2 and 3 (the latter known as Alzheimer's disease). The onset of these diseases is affected by complex interactions of genetic and several environmental factors. Alterations in gut microbiota in combination with specific diets can result in increased intestinal permeability leading via a continuous state of low-grade inflammation to the development of insulin resistance. Since a change in composition of gut microbiota is also suggested to be the underlying factor for the development of obesity, it is obvious to link gut microbiota with the pathogenesis of diabetes. In addition, insulin resistance in the brain has been recently associated with Alzheimer's disease. These new paradigms in combination with data from studies with prebiotics and probiotics may lead to a novel way to control and even prevent diabetes in general. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Actinobacteria
  • Alzheimer Disease
  • Alzheimer disease
  • Animals
  • C reactive protein
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Firmicutes
  • Gene-Environment Interaction
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Intestines
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus
  • Microbiota
  • Mucosal
  • Obesity
  • Paneth cell
  • Peptoclostridium difficile
  • Probiotics
  • T lymphocyte
  • T lymphocyte activation
  • Type 1
  • Type 2
  • apoptosis
  • bacterium lipopolysaccharide
  • birth weight
  • caloric intake
  • cytokine production
  • cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4
  • dairy product
  • diet
  • diet supplementation
  • disease association
  • energy
  • energy expenditure
  • environmental factor
  • feces
  • gene mutation
  • genetic association
  • genetic susceptibility
  • genotype environment interaction
  • glucagon like peptide 1
  • glucose blood level
  • glucose metabolism
  • goblet cell
  • heredity
  • homeostasis
  • human
  • hyperglycemia
  • immune response
  • immune system
  • immunology
  • infection risk
  • inflammation
  • innate immunity
  • insulin
  • insulin deficiency
  • insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • insulin release
  • insulin resistance
  • insulin sensitivity
  • insulin treatment
  • interleukin 2 receptor
  • intestine epithelium
  • intestine flora
  • intestine mucosa permeability
  • inulin
  • lifestyle modification
  • metabolic syndrome X
  • microbiology
  • molecular mimicry
  • mucin
  • non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • non receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase 22
  • nonhuman
  • nutritional deficiency
  • obesity
  • oxidative stress
  • pathogenesis
  • prebiotic agent
  • primary prevention
  • probiotic agent
  • protein blood level
  • regulatory T lymphocyte
  • review
  • sedentary lifestyle
  • sex difference
  • therapeutic use
  • therapy
  • toll like receptor 5
  • ulcerative colitis
  • vitamin D deficiency
  • yoghurt

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Authors

  • Bekkering P.

  • Jafri I.

  • Van Overveld F.J.

  • Rijkers G.T.

  • Pjotr Bekkering

  • Ismael Jafri

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