We provide a compact overview of invasive and noninvasive brain-computer interfaces (BCI). This serves as a high-level introduction to an exciting and active ﬁeld and sets the scene for the following sections of this book. In particular, the chapter brieﬂy assembles information on recording methods and introduces the physiological signals that are being used in BCI paradigms. Furthermore, we review the spectrum from subject training to machine learning approaches. We expand on clinical and human-machine interface (HMI) applications for BCI and discuss future directions and open challenges in the BCI ﬁeld.
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