Secondary or post-synthesis treatments have been utilized to produce many of the desired catalytic properties that could not be achieved by direct synthesis. These include increased catalytic acid activity, improved thermal and hydrothermal stability, and extra porosity. Historically, research in this area has been driven by the demand for improved petroleum cracking catalysts. Treatments used include: acid leaching, high temperature steam, and chemical treatments with chelates or fluoride compounds as well as combinations of these treatments. These processes are described along with the effects these methods have on the structural, physical and catalytic properties of the material.
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