In this communication, we review a broad range of mitigation strategies associated with the management of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). We consider methods that are currently utilized or proposed for controlling beetle populations, the manner in which the effectiveness of these approaches is monitored and assessed and, finally, the role that remotely sensed data may play in a large-area monitoring system. To this end, we first review the goals of effectiveness monitoring and introduce a general classification system to clarify the purpose and practice of efficacy monitoring. Based on these principles, the review is then structured around effectiveness evaluations for managing forest pests, primarily mountain, southern, and western pine beetles throughout North America. These evaluations are grouped by management strategy: silvicultural treatments; prescribed burns; and the use of attractants, repellants, and insecticides. Finally, we propose the use of remotely sensed data as a complementary tool for monitoring changes in the extent and severity of mountain pine beetle damage across large areas. Use of such data enables assessment of the efficacy of landscape level management practices, direction of the application of new mitigation activities, and reduction of the risk of future infestations.
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