This paper uses pre-offer market valuations to evaluate the misvaluation and Q the- ories of takeovers. Bidder and target valuations (price-to-book, or price-to-residual- income-model-value) are related to means of payment, mode of acquisition, premia, target hostility, offer success, and bidder and target announcement-period returns. The evidence is broadly consistent with both hypotheses. The evidence for the Q hy- pothesis is stronger in the pre-1990 period than in the 1990–2000 period, whereas the evidence for the misvaluation hypothesis is stronger in the 1990–2000 period than in the pre-1990 period.
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