Invited Review Article: Review of centrifugal microfluidic and bio−optical disks.

  • Nolte D
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Spinning biodisks have advantages that make them attractive for specialized biochip applications. The two main classes of spinning biodisks are microfluidic disks and bio−optical compact disks (BioCD). Microfluidic biodisks take advantage of noninertial pumping for lab−on−a−chip devices using noninertial valves and switches under centrifugal and Coriolis forces to distribute fluids about the disks. BioCDs use spinning−disk interferometry, under the condition of common−path phase quadrature, to perform interferometric label−free detection of molecular recognition and binding. The optical detection of bound molecules on a disk is facilitated by rapid spinning that enables high−speed repetitive sampling to eliminate 1/f noise through common−mode rejection of intensity fluctuations and extensive signal averaging. Multiple quadrature classes have been developed, such as microdiffraction, in−line, phase contrast, and holographic adaptive optics. Thin molecular films are detected through the surface dipole density with a surface height sensitivity for the detection of protein spots that is approximately 1 pm. This sensitivity easily resolves a submonolayer of solid−support immobilized antibodies and their antigen targets. Fluorescence and light scattering provide additional optical detection techniques on spinning disks. Immunoassays have been applied to haptoglobin using protein A/G immobilization of antibodies and to prostate specific antigen. Small protein spots enable scalability to many spots per disk for high−throughput and highly multiplexed immonoassays.

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  • David D Nolte

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