Ionogels, ionic liquid based hybrid materials

  • Le Bideau J
  • Viau L
  • Vioux A
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Abstract

The current interest in ionic liquids (ILs) is motivated by some unique properties{,} such as negligible vapour pressure{,} thermal stability and non-flammability{,} combined with high ionic conductivity and wide electrochemical stability window. However{,} for material applications{,} there is a challenging need for immobilizing ILs in solid devices{,} while keeping their specific properties. In this critical review{,} ionogels are presented as a new class of hybrid materials{,} in which the properties of the IL are hybridized with those of another component{,} which may be organic (low molecular weight gelator{,} (bio)polymer){,} inorganic (e.g.carbon nanotubes{,} silicaetc.) or hybrid organic-inorganic (e.g.polymer and inorganic fillers). Actually{,} ILs act as structuring media during the formation of inorganic ionogels{,} their intrinsic organization and physicochemical properties influencing the building of the solid host network. Conversely{,} some effects of confinement can modify some properties of the guest IL{,} even though liquid-like dynamics and ion mobility are preserved. Ionogels{,} which keep the main properties of ILs except outflow{,} while allowing easy shaping{,} considerably enlarge the array of applications of ILs. Thus{,} they form a promising family of solid electrolyte membranes{,} which gives access to all-solid devices{,} a topical industrial challenge in domains such as lithium batteries{,} fuel cells and dye-sensitized solar cells. Replacing conventional media{,} organic solvents in lithium batteries or water in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFC){,} by low-vapour-pressure and non flammable ILs presents major advantages such as improved safety and a higher operating temperature range. Implementation of ILs in separation techniques{,} where they benefit from huge advantages as well{,} relies again on the development of supported IL membranes such as ionogels. Moreover{,} functionalization of ionogels can be achieved both by incorporation of organic functions in the solid matrix{,} and by encapsulation of molecular species (from metal complexes to enzymes) in the immobilized IL phase{,} which opens new routes for designing advanced materials{,} especially (bio)catalytic membranes{,} sensors and drug release systems (194 references).

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Authors

  • Jean Le Bideau

  • Lydie Viau

  • Andre Vioux

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