The "Colli Albani" composite volcano is made up of strongly silica-undersaturated leucite-bearing rocks. Magmas were erupted during three main periods, but a complex plumbing system dominated by regional tectonics channelled magmas into different reservoirs. The most alkali-rich magmas, restricted to the caldera-forming period (pre-caldera), are extremely enriched in incompatible trace elements and display more radiogenic Sr ((87)Sr/(86)Sr = 0.71057-0.71067), with slightly less radiogenic Pb with respect to those of the post-caldera period. Post-caldera volcanic activity was concentrated in three different volcanic environments: external to the caldera, along the caldera edge and within the caldera. The post-caldera magmas produced melilite- to leucitite-bearing, plagioclase-free leucitites. In contrast to the pre-caldera lavas, they are characterised by lower incompatible trace element abundances and less radiogenic Sr ((87)Sr/(86)Sr = 0.71006-0.71039). Magmas evolved through crystal fractionation plus minor crustal assimilation in a large magma chamber during the pre-caldera period. The multiple caldera collapses dissected and partially obliterated the early magma chamber. During the post-caldera stage, magmas were channelled through several pathways and multiple shallow-level magma reservoirs were established. A lithospheric mantle wedge previously depleted in the basaltic component and subsequently enriched by metasomatic slab-derived component is suggested as the mantle source of Colli Albani parental magmas. Two different parental magmas are recognised for the pre- and post-caldera stages. The differences may be related to the interplay between smaller degrees of melting for the pre-caldera magmas and more carbonate-rich recycled subducted lithologies in the post-caldera magmas.
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