The Karolinska directed emotional faces: A validation study

  • Goeleven E
  • De Raedt R
  • Leyman L
 et al. 
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Although affective facial pictures are widely used in emotion research, standardised affective stimuli sets are rather scarce, and the existing sets have several limitations. We therefore conducted a validation study of 490 pictures of human facial expressions from the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces database (KDEF). Pictures were evaluated on emotional content and were rated on an intensity and arousal scale. Results indicate that the database contains a valid set of affective facial pictures. Hit rates, intensity, and arousal of the 20 best KDEF pictures for each basic emotion are provided in an appendix.

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