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Journal article

LABORATORY-DERIVED FRICTION LAWS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO SEISMIC FAULTING

Marone C ...see all

Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol. 26, issue 1 (1998) pp. 643-696

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Abstract

This paper reviews rock friction and the frictional properties of
earthquake faults. The basis for rate- and state-dependent friction laws
is reviewed. The friction state variable is discussed, including its
interpretation as a measure of average asperity contact time and
porosity within granular fault gouge. Data are summarized showing that
friction evolves even during truly stationary contact, and the
connection between modern friction laws and the concept of ``static{''}
friction is discussed. Measurements of frictional healing, as evidenced
by increasing static friction during quasistationary contact, are
reviewed, as are their implications for fault healing. Shear
localization in fault gouge is discussed, and the relationship between
microstructures and friction is reviewed. These data indicate
differences in the behavior of bare rock surfaces as compared to shear
within granular fault gouge that can be attributed to dilation within
fault gouge. Physical models for the characteristic friction distance
are discussed and related to the problem of scaling this parameter to
seismic faults. Earthquake afterslip, its relation to laboratory
friction data, and the inverse correlation between afterslip and shallow
coseismic slip are discussed in the context of a model for afterslip.
Recent observations of the absence of afterslip are predicted by the
model.

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Authors

  • Chris Marone

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