Land and Society in Golden Age Castile

  • Phillips W
  • Vassberg D
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Abstract

p. xv-xvii. pxvi: encomienda: grant of jurisdiction made ny the crown to individuals and military orders, of lands conquered from the Moslems. p. xvii: repartimiento: apportionment of lands among settlers; or an assessment of taxes . Señorío: under seigneurial jurisdiction. termino: territory under the jurisdiction of a municipality. Tierras baldías: common lands, or crown lands. p. xvi: mayordomo: chief steward, or mayordomo. p. 6-7: the principle and origin of public ownership. p. 7-10: crown lands and baldies. p. 10: "...The propies were lands or any other kind of property owned by the municipality as a juridical entity..." p. 57-64: Intermunicipal commons. p. 76-77: p. 76: "Periodically, the municipal governments would order an inspection tour (visita de términos or visita de inspección y amojonamiento) of the boundaries of the locality's territory. There were two major concerns in these inspections: first, that the integrity of the various municipal properties was being maintained; and second, that the dividing line separating the territories of different municipalities had not been altered. Territorial and property boundaries were marked in various ways. The boundaries often followed easily identificable natural features such as rivers, unusual rock formations, or large trees. But these were not always available, so man-made boundary markers were also used. Buildings, walls, orcorrals could serve the purpose, but the most widely used artificial landmark was the stone mojón (marker)..." p. 78: Jueces de terminos. p. 79; "...The Mesta´s Cañadas (especially designated trails for transhumant flocks and herds) could be used by local as well as by migratory animals..." p. 92: realengo solariego, pueblos y tierras. p. 97: "The castilian vassal was theoretically obligated to find lodgings for his lord and the lord´s retinue. But that feudal requirement, like the one of personal service, had practically disappeared by the late 1500s. And where the obligation still existed it was normally commuted for a small cash payment."p. 115: "The property of the Hispanic military orders was assigned to the organizations' various dignitaries, often in encomiendas (territories entrusted to their care). Each encomienda was administered by a comendador appointed by the Grand Master of the order, and included specific lands, revenues, and privileges. The income from the encomienda was to be used for the support of the local churches and clergy, and for military expenses." p. 114: " These crusading [Hispanic military] orders played a major role in expanding and defending the [Chrisrian-Moslem] frontier. In return, the kings of León y Castile rewarded them generously with lands grants informerly Moslem territories...Land mean wealth, and the orders´wealth posed a threat to royal authority. That threat was removed when Ferdinand and Isabella managed to gain for the crown the masterships of all three major hispanic orders..." p. 115: "...The military orders played the same kind of role in resettling their lands as the nobility and the church did on theirs..." Map. 3. p. 116: lands of the military orders. p. 121-2: "...the most important of the conquered cities were organized as royal towns dependent on the crown, and Christian colonist were a llotted lands through repartimientos supervised by royally appointed officials...The repartimientos established a class of small peasant land owners...were carried out on the principle that colonist from the same social class should receive allotments of approximately equal value, and toward that end, differences in topography, soil type, vegetation, and improvements were taken into consideration, as well as mere land are. As a result, in the initial distribution of lands, the individual peasant was likely to be alloted several small parcels of land scattered around the territory of the settlement. p. 147: "The sixteenth century witnessed a growing investment by city dwellers in agricultural property. This was not a peculiarly castilian phenomenon, but also true of the rest of Europe...by the 15005 land ownership was becoming increasingly popular as an attractive investment...the conquistadores and their families bought rural properties with their loot from America..." p. 194. "In castile the municipal grabaries were called albóndigas or positos. they were created to eliminate regrating, to stabilize prices, and to guarantee an adequate supply of grain following catastrophic harvest. The pósitos purchased grain at threshing time, and stored it for late sale at reasonable prices for planting seed and for bread making,,,Philip II realized this, and ordered all the towns of Castile to establish pósitos..." p. 198-199: Drought,floods,bad harvest,records.

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Authors

  • William D. Phillips

  • David E. Vassberg

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