The South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean play an important role in the global thermohaline circulation. Paleoceanographic records from South Atlantic sediments indicate that many of the present-day factors, which are critical for the circulation in the South Atlantic, have been affected by late Pleistocene climatic changes. These include the distribution of sea-surface temperature, upper ocean stratification, freshwater input, sea ice, coastal upwelling, and productivity as well as the intermediate and deep-water circulation. The temporal evolution of late Pleistocene paleoceanographic proxy records suggest that the South Atlantic is an active component of climate change at orbital and millennial timescales.
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