Laurasian migration explains Gondwanan disjunctions: Evidence from Malpighiaceae

  • 1. Guimarães, A. L. de A., Costa, R. P. C., Cabral, L. M. & Vieira, A. C. de M. Comparative anatomy and chemical analysis of the vegetative organs of three species of Stigmaphyllon (Malpighiaceae). Flora Morphol. Distrib. Funct. Ecol. Plants 224 3
  • 2. Souto, L. S. & Oliveira, D. M. T. Evaluation of the floral vasculature of the Janusia, Mascagnia and Tetrapterys species as a tool to explain the decrease of floral organs in Malpighiaceae. Flora Morphol. Distrib. Funct. Ecol. Plants 208 3
  • 3. Araújo, J. S., Azevedo, A. A., Silva, L. C. & Meira, R. M. S. A. Leaf anatomy as an additional taxonomy tool for 16 species of Malpighiaceae found in the Cerrado area (Brazil). Plant Syst. Evol. 286 1
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Abstract

Explanations for biogeographic disjunctions involving South America and Africa typically invoke vicariance of western Gondwanan biotas or long distance dispersal. These hypotheses are problematical because many groups originated and diversified well after the last known connection between Africa and South America (approximately 105 million years ago), and it is unlikely that "sweepstakes" dispersal accounts for many of these disjunctions. Phylogenetic analyses of the angiosperm clade Malpighiaceae, combined with fossil evidence and molecular divergence-time estimates, suggest an alternative hypothesis to account for such distributions. We propose that Malpighiaceae originated in northern South America, and that members of several clades repeatedly migrated into North America and subsequently moved via North Atlantic land connections into the Old World during episodes starting in the Eocene, when climates supported tropical forests. This Laurasian migration route may explain many other extant lineages that exhibit western Gondwanan distributions.

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Authors

  • 30–41 (2016). 1. Guimarães, A. L. de A., Costa, R. P. C., Cabral, L. M. & Vieira, A. C. de M. Comparative anatomy and chemical analysis of the vegetative organs of three species of Stigmaphyllon (Malpighiaceae). Flora Morphol. Distrib. Funct. Ecol. Plants 224

  • 351–359 (2013). 2. Souto, L. S. & Oliveira, D. M. T. Evaluation of the floral vasculature of the Janusia, Mascagnia and Tetrapterys species as a tool to explain the decrease of floral organs in Malpighiaceae. Flora Morphol. Distrib. Funct. Ecol. Plants 208

  • 117–131 (2010). 3. Araújo, J. S., Azevedo, A. A., Silva, L. C. & Meira, R. M. S. A. Leaf anatomy as an additional taxonomy tool for 16 species of Malpighiaceae found in the Cerrado area (Brazil). Plant Syst. Evol. 286

  • 113–135 (2007). 4. Anderson, W. R. Psychopterys, a new Genus of Malpighiaceae from Mexico and Central America. Contrib. Univ. Michigan Herb. 25

  • H. P. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. Anat. dicotyledons 97 – 117 (1979). 5. Wilkinson

  • 83–105 (2001). 6. Anderson, W. R. & Davis, C. C. Monography of Lophopterys (Malpighiaceae). Contrib. Univ. Michigan Herb. 23

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