The layered oxides of vanadium and molybdenum have been studied for close to 40 years as possible cathode materials for lithium batteries or electrochromic systems. The highly distorted metal octahedra naturally lead to the formation of a wide range of layer structures, which can intercalate lithium levels exceeding 300 Ah/kg. They have found continuing success in medical devices, such as pacemakers, but many challenges remain in their application in long-lived rechargeable devices. Their high-energy storage capability remains an encouragement to researchers to resolve the stability concerns of vanadium dissolution and the tendency of lithium and vanadium to mix changing the crystal structure on cycling the lithium in and out. Nanomorphologies have enabled higher reactivities to be obtained for both vanadium and molybdenum oxides, and with the latter show promise for electrochromic displays.
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