Leaf mining is a form of endophagous herbivory in which insect larvae live and feed within leaf tissue. In this review we discuss aspects of leaf miner ecology, and the current evidence for three hypotheses relating to the evolution of this feeding guild. We also present a summary of the literature coverage relating to these herbivores, which have been relatively poorly studied compared with insects that feed externally such as sap suckers and leaf chewers. The majority of published studies concern leaf miners from the northern hemisphere, with a general focus on those species considered to be agricultural, forestry or horticultural pests. In a more detailed case study, we examine aspects of leaf miner ecology of Australian species. At least 114 species have been recorded as leaf miners in Australia in four orders: Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. Lepidoptera and Diptera are the most speciose orders of Australian leaf miners; Hymenoptera are represented by a single endemic genus and half of all coleopteran miners are species introduced for biological control. Both the known number of leaf-mining species in Australia and the known number of hosts have increased in recent years following new targeted surveys. Leaf miners in Australia occur in many habitats and feed on a wide variety of host plants in at least 60 families although most individual species are monophagous. Although much of the research on leaf miners in Australia has focused on species that are commercially important pests or biological control agents, studies on fundamental aspects of leaf miner ecology are increasing. We identify a number of research questions aimed at better understanding the ecology of leaf miners in Australia and elsewhere.
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