Virtually all international environmental commitments must be "domesticated" -- transformed into domestic rules before they can affect the individuals, firms and organizations that international environmental agreements ultimately aim to influence. The domestication of international commitments is a relatively new topic, but scholars will learn much from the extensive studies conducted over the last three decades on implementation of domestic policies and programs. In this paper, the author reviews the main works, trends and concepts in the policy implementation literature. He also reviews the distinct literature on policy implementation in developing countries. Finally, he synthesizes the reviewed literature into five clusters of critical variables that explain success and failure in policy implementation. That 5C protocol is an organizing framework for conducting and assessing research into policy implementation, including implementation of international environmental commitments.
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