Modelling and extracting 3D geographical data presents numerous challenges that require continual research to attempt to evolve an efficient, reliable and accurate solution. LiDAR data capture and analysis has become a preferred acquisition choice for elevation data because the resulting quality and level of detail far exceeds traditional methods for large survey areas. As with any data collection system, LiDAR is prone to errors. Analysing these errors, ascertaining causes and producing error correction strategies is vital if accurate and confident results are to be obtained. Eight years of LiDAR datasets (from 1998 to 2005) have been closely analysed for a large coastal area of South Wales. This article provides a detailed and accurate summary of the identified LiDAR data issues and subsequent errors which affect the accuracy of end products such as Digital Surface Models (DSMs).
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