The awareness of sustainable and renewable polymeric material development enhances the possible applications and value addition to lignin. Lignin, of which more than 70 million tons per year is being generated as a residue from chemical pulp mills, is mainly being utilized as a boiler fuel. However, limited attempts have been made to derive chemical value from lignin. It is anticipated that future lignocellulosic ethanol industries will generate massive amounts of lignin. This lignin will likely be different from that produced from conventional pulp mills. Lignins are highly functionalized biomacromolecules possessing primarily alkyl-aryl ether linkages, aliphatic and aromatic hydroxyl groups and low polydispersity, which offer potential for higher value-added applications in renewable polymeric materials development. The value added applications of lignin not only helps to boost the economic viability of the bioethanol industry but also serves as a source of renewable materials. The present review highlights the lignin generated from biorefineries and reviews the reported research on the polymeric applications of lignin.
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