Examined the work of A. H. Bloom (1981, 1984) in which he claimed distinct differences between English and Chinese speakers' counterfactual reasoning and differences attributable to discrete grammatical differences between the languages. Data from 21 native Arabic speakers (20 males) show that for one of Bloom's counterfactual tasks, Ss patterned completely opposite to his English speakers and more like the Chinese. Arabic is a language that contains an explicit counterfactual marker. It is suggested that an inclination to entertain counterfactual premises derives from culture-specific values, which consequently become institutionalized in a community's educational and testing conventions.
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