Linkage disequilibrium decay and haplotype block structure in the pig

  • Amaral A
  • Megens H
  • Crooijmans R
 et al. 
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Abstract

Linkage disequilibrium (LD) may reveal much about domestication and breed history. An investigation was conducted, to analyze the extent of LD, haploblock partitioning, and haplotype diversity within haploblocks across several pig breeds from China and Europe and in European wild boar. In total, 371 single-nucleotide-polymorphisms located in three genomic regions were genotyped. The extent of LD differed significantly between European and Chinese breeds, extending up to 2 cM in Europe and up to 0.05 cM in China. In European breeds, LD extended over large haploblocks up to 400 kb, whereas in Chinese breeds the extent of LD was smaller and generally did not exceed 10 kb. The European wild boar showed an intermediate level of LD between Chinese and European breeds. In Europe, the extent of LD also differed according to genomic region. Chinese breeds showed a higher level of haplotype diversity and shared high levels of frequent haplotypes with Large White, Landrace, and Duroc. The extent of LD differs between both centers of pig domestication, being higher in Europe. Two hypotheses can explain these findings. First, the European ancestral stock had a higher level of LD. Second, modern breeding programs increased the extent of LD in Europe and caused differences of LD between genomic regions. Large White, Landrace, and Duroc showed evidence of past introgression from Chinese breeds.

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