A major characteristic of software engineering compared with other engineering disciplines, is our inability to get the product right first time around. Change is an intrinsic and essential part of software development, and for good reasons. It is difficult to specify what is required without having some form of model to help formalise the problem. The real-world problem, which the software exists to solve, is itself subject to change. And even if we know what to produce, the design, and development of these invisible, intangible, and complex software products is still inherently difficult. At the same time, software has become a critical competitive factor for many organisations. For instance, the development of software for aeroengine controllers can be critical to whole aeroengine developments. The ability to produce software of higher quality, for less cost, in shorter timescales is a matter of survival. Organisations must continually seek to improve the processes by which software...
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