OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This prospective study aims to identify differences in local and systemic chemokines kinetics within 24 h of a standardised human surgical trauma (total hip arthroplasty) and their impact on systemic polymorphonuclear cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined seven patients with coxarthrosis, but without comorbidity, who had a total hip arthroplasty. Local drained blood and systemic blood samples were collected at wound closure and at 1, 4, and 24 h after surgery. Chemokines were measured using a multiplex antibody bead kit. Venous whole blood cell counts were taken at the same points in time. RESULTS: There is a significant postoperative local burst of CCL2 and CXCL8 while systemic levels stay unchanged. The systemic levels of CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were significantly reduced at 24 h post-surgery, but local levels remain unchanged or had only modest changes. There was a significant postoperative rise in monocytes and neutrophils. CONCLUSION: There is fundamental difference between local and systemic chemokine kinetics in the human trauma model studied. High postoperative concentrations of CCL2 and CXCL8 at the site of inflammation form a gradient that contributes to the recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes at the trauma site.
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