Aims: To evaluate the safety profile and efficacy of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) transplantation for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by assessing patients and their left ventricular function at up to 4 years follow-up. Methods and results: Eighty-six patients with STEMI who had successfully undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomized to receive intracoronary injection of BMMNC (n = 41) or saline (n = 45). Left ventricular ejection fraction, as evaluated by UCG, was markedly improved at 6 months (0.484 ± 0.5 vs. 0.457 ± 0.6, P = 0.001), 1 year (0.482 ± 0.7 vs. 0.446 ± 0.6, P < 0.001), and 4 years (0.505 ± 0.8 vs. 0.464 ± 0.8, P < 0.001) after BMMNC transplant when compared with control group. However, the current cell therapy did not improve the myocardial viability of the infarcted area as assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography analysis at 4 years post-transplant (0.263 ± 0.007 in BMMNC group vs. 0.281 ± 0.008 in control group, P = 0.10). During the follow-up period, one control group case (2.2%) of in-stent restenosis was confirmed by coronary angiography and underwent repeat PCI. Also during follow-up, one death (2.2%) occurred in the control group, and one patient (2.4%) in the BMMNC group had transient acute heart failure. Conclusion: This study indicates that intracoronary delivery of autologous BMMNC is safe and feasible for STEMI patients who have undergone PCI, and can lead to long-term improvement in myocardial function. © The Author 2009.
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