Low density lipoprotein apheresis by membrane differential filtration (cascade filtration)

  • Geiss H
  • Parhofer K
  • Donner M
 et al. 
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Abstract

Membrane differential filtration (MDF) is an apheresis technique with which atherogenic lipoproteins can be eliminated from plasma on the basis of particle size. In 52 patients (REMUKAST Study, 1,702 treatments), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was decreased by 61%, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 42%, and fibrinogen by 54%. Our own results in 3 patients show decreases of 62%, 31%, and 59%, respectively; lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) was reduced by 58%. The elimination of atherogenic lipoproteins was accompanied by a loss of macromolecules (IgM: 55%, IgG: 27%, alpha 2-macroglobulin: 49%) resulting in improved hemorrheologic parameters. Although HDL is eliminated with each apheresis session, pretreatment concentrations of HDL cholesterol increased by 24% during regular apheresis for 1 year (26 patients, REMUKAST Study). However, preapheresis concentrations of other macroglobulins such as immunoglobulins remained decreased compared to concentrations obtained before the first apheresis session (IgM: 34%, IgG: 23%, and IgA: 16%). We conclude that MDF apheresis is an effective method to lower elevated concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins. The concomitant loss of other macromolecules transiently improves hemorrheology but demands a close monitoring of immunoglobulin concentrations as a safety parameter.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Cascade filtration
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia
  • LDL apheresis
  • Membrane differential filtration

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