Porous carbon counter electrodes have been fabricated at low temperature by coating an organic binder free carbon slurry onto F-doped tin oxide conducting glass. The carbon slurry is prepared by ball-milling a dispersion of activated carbon in aqueous SnCl4solution. During ball-milling, SnCl4hydrolyzes and transforms into stannic acid gel, which acts as an inorganic "glue" to connect the carbon particles during film preparation. Dye-sensitized solar cells employing this carbon electrode achieve efficiency as high as 6.1% which is comparable to that of the cells using sputtering Pt as counter electrode. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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