Lowest-Landau-level description of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rapidly rotating anisotropic trap

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A rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in a symmetric two-dimensional trap can be described with the lowest Landau-level set of states. In this case, the condensate wave function psi(x,y) is a Gaussian function of r^2 = x^2 + y^2, multiplied by an analytic function P(z) of the single complex variable z= x+ i y; the zeros of P(z) denote the positions of the vortices. Here, a similar description is used for a rapidly rotating anisotropic two-dimensional trap with arbitrary anisotropy (omega_x/omega_y le 1). The corresponding condensate wave function psi(x,y) has the form of a complex anisotropic Gaussian with a phase proportional to xy, multiplied by an analytic function P(zeta), where zeta is proportional to x + i beta_- y and 0 le beta_- le 1 is a real parameter that depends on the trap anisotropy and the rotation frequency. The zeros of P(zeta) again fix the locations of the vortices. Within the set of lowest Landau-level states at zero temperature, an anisotropic parabolic density profile provides an absolute minimum for the energy, with the vortex density decreasing slowly and anisotropically away from the trap center.

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  • Alexander L. Fetter

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