Low-Temperature Deposition of TiN by Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition

  • Heil S
  • Langereis E
  • Roozeboom F
 et al. 
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Titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited by a plasma-assisted atomic
layer deposition (PA-ALD) process, based on TiCl4 precursor dosing
and remote H-2-N-2 plasma exposure, at temperatures ranging from
100 to 400 S C. The plasma, the PA-ALD process, and the resulting
TiN material properties were extensively investigated. The plasma
was studied by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe,
revealing an ion density of 10(9) cm(-3) and an electron temperature
of 3.5 eV just above the substrate. Under floating conditions there
is thus a considerable ion flux towards the substrate per ALD cycle
with a typical ion energy of similar to 15 eV. TiN film growth was
studied by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, revealing self-limiting
surface reactions for the complete temperature range. At 100 S C
the growth rate of 0.3 angstrom/cycle was found to be significantly
lower than the growth rate of 0.6 angstrom/cycle at 400 S C. The
stoichiometry of the films varied with the plasma exposure time,
while the Cl content was mostly affected by the deposition temperature
(2.1 atom % at 100 degrees C to 0.07 atom % at 400 degrees C). Resistivities
as low as 71 mu Omega cm were obtained at a temperature of 400 degrees
C, while at 100 degrees C a fair resistivity of 209 mu Omega cm was
reached. These results show that PA-ALD with TiCl4 and H-2-N-2 plasma
is well suited for low-temperature deposition of high-quality TiN
films. (c) 2006 The Electrochemical Society.

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  • S. B. S. Heil

  • E. Langereis

  • F. Roozeboom

  • M. C. M. van de Sanden

  • W. M. M. Kessels

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